The EPA contains « a number of provisions that simplify negotiation and investment procedures, reduce export and investment costs and, as a result, allow more small businesses to trade in both markets. Expected benefits include increased transparency, less stringent technical regulation, compliance requirements, customs procedures and rules of origin, better protection of intellectual property rights and geographical indications, better access to tendering procedures and a specific chapter allowing SMEs to maximize the benefits of the EPA. » (Source: proposal for the conclusion of the Economic Partnership Agreement between the European Union and Japan – COM (2018) 192 final) The EPA was linked to the creation of a secure data flow space between the EU and Japan. On 23 January, the European Commission adopted a adquacy decision on Japan certifying the equivalence of its data protection standards so that the personal data of European citizens can be freely transferred to Japan. The Japanese government has taken a decision on the EU, giving life to an idea of a 21st century agreement. Businesses can now move data between the EU and Japan, creating new opportunities for both digital markets. Doing business and investing in Japan can be difficult for European companies and there have been some trade disputes between the two parties. However, the slowdown in the Japanese economy has encouraged them to become more open to business and investment in the EU.  In the work of reducing trade barriers, the emphasis is on opening up investment flows.  On 17 July 2018, the European Union and Japan signed an Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA), the largest trade agreement ever negotiated by the EU, which will create an open trade area of more than 600 million people. The EPA BETWEEN the EU and Japan should boost trade in goods and services and create many opportunities for EU SMEs: tariffs on more than 90% of Japan`s imports from the EU will be abolished as soon as the EPA comes into force. This will cover a wide range of sectors: agriculture and food, manufactured goods (including textiles, clothing, etc.), as well as forestry and fishing. In addition, non-tariff barriers to motor vehicles, medical devices and « quasi-drug » sectors are expected to be significantly reduced.
Finally, the agreement will facilitate the export of services to the Japanese market and will affect a considerable number of sectors, from telecommunications to postal services to the financial sector. This trifecta of agreements significantly improves relations between the EU and Japan and has global implications. While geography has divided them, common values and principles have brought the EU and Japan closer together and defended these values together. Learn more about exporting European food and drink to Japan as part of our EPA tax trade agreement? The geographical indications provisions of this agreement protect many French products, including champagne and Roquefort cheese. EU-Japan trade: ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/countries-and-regions/countries/japan/ Discover the current trade relationship between the EU and Japan This agreement is particularly beneficial for French farmers and exporters: Japan is France`s sixth largest trading partner outside the European Union. Around 8,000 French companies are already exporting there, many for the first time exporters, and selling more than 6 billion euros worth of goods. The Japanese market offers considerable potential for French products due to its size and the high standards of its consumers. The EU is stepping up military cooperation between member states and could even create a European army, while Japan, under The presidency of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, has announced the policy of « proactive contribution to peace ». Thus, the EU-Japan GSB integrates perfectly and allows both sides to find new ways to promote peace and security.
An agency contract is a contract. It consists of: merchant agreements operate on the principle that a company grants another company or an individual the right to resell its goods or services, assuming that the reseller meets certain conditions and that it does not misrepresent the original distributor or the product itself. The reseller agreement does not allow the retailer to display or market the product in a manner it has chosen; instead, it must sell in accordance with the guidelines of the distribution company. These guidelines could say that the price is limited to a certain point or that the product must be sold with a limited warranty. A distribution agreement is an agreement between a distributor and a manufacturer. With this agreement, the distributor buys the goods from the manufacturer and sells it to another distributor or distributor. The trader benefits from a surcharge on the price of the goods when he resells it. A distribution agreement is an agreement between a main distributor and a distributor that allows the distributor to sell the client`s products in a market or territory, usually an agreement in which the client is not present. The distributor is essentially a reseller for the client`s products. The client may be a manufacturer or supplier, or even a distributor himself, looking for someone who bears some of his distribution responsibility. There are exclusive, non-exclusive and exclusive distribution agreements. Often, there are also competition issues that need to be considered in exclusive and exclusive agreements. These must be tightened up as a non-exclusive agreement, as both parties are more at stake and the relationship is closer to that of a franchise.
An agency relationship exists when one party (the agent) has the permission of another party (the supplier) to receive orders from a third party (the client) or to establish a legal relationship between the supplier and the client. The difference is that the agent acts in the name of principle, whereas a distributor probably acts on his own behalf, but has a contractual relationship with the principle of buying certain goods and putting them directly on the market with restrictions. In addition, this contract is defined and regulated by the Agency Contracts Act. Over the years, the case law has defined and limited the agreement and resolved the most problematic issues. The most important issue is customer compensation, which is not mentioned in any of the cases of termination of an agency contract. If you are a manufacturer of goods or services, you may not have the resources to market them yourself in all the markets you want to cover.
The countries most affected by the effects of climate change will be low-lying nations, particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, and developing countries that do not have the resources to adapt to changes in temperature and precipitation. But prosperous nations like the United States are also increasingly vulnerable. In fact, millions of Americans – especially children, the elderly and the poor – are already suffering from the wrath of climate change. Article 28 of the agreement allows the parties to terminate the contract following a notification of an appeal to the custodian. This notification can only take place three years after the agreement for the country comes into force. The payment is made one year after the transfer. Alternatively, the agreement provides that the withdrawal of the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, also withdraws the state from the Paris Agreement. The terms of the UNFCCC`s exit are the same as those of the Paris Agreement. There is no provision in the agreement for non-compliance.
Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an « Annex 1 » country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.  Although mitigation and adjustment require more climate funding, adjustment has generally received less support and has mobilized less private sector action.  A 2014 OECD report showed that in 2014, only 16% of the world`s financial resources were devoted to adaptation to climate change.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance between adaptation and mitigation, highlighting in particular the need to strengthen support for adaptation from the parties most affected by climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adjustment measures receive less public sector investment.  John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double its grant-based adjustment funding by 2020.  The Paris Agreement, adopted for two weeks in Paris at the 21st United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP21) on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and adopted on 12 December 2015, it marked a historic turning point in the fight against climate change, with world leaders representing 195 nations having reached an agreement containing commitments from all countries to combat climate change and adapt to its effects. (b) improving the ability to adapt to the negative effects of climate change and promoting resilience to climate change and the development of low greenhouse gas emissions so as not to endanger food production; The 32-part document sets out a framework for global action on climate change, including climate change mitigation and adaptation, support for developing countries and transparency of reporting, and strengthening climate change goals.